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Demography: The Study Of Human Population HOT!



Demography is the scientific study of human populations primarily with respect to their size, their structure and their development; it takes into account the quantitative aspects of their general characteristics.




Demography: The Study of Human Population



Demography is the study of demographics, the social characteristics and statistics of a human population. This study of the size, age structures, and economics of different populations can be used for a variety of purposes. Political candidates use the information to inform targeted campaigns. Scientists employ the data to answer research questions, and marketing teams use it for advertising purposes. Government and business policymakers use it to craft ideas and plan for the future.


Demography is the scientific study of human populations (McDonald, 2014). Demographers study the size, structure, and distribution of human populations. Demographers often use a variety of statistical methods to analyze changes in various subcomponents of human populations, such as births, deaths, or changes in legal status (for example, marriage, divorce, and migration).


Demographers often make a distinction between basic and applied demography, with the former focused on explaining trends in a population and the latter focused on predicting change (Swanson, Burch, & Tedrow, 1996). Demographers engage in a variety of tasks associated with understanding how population changes over time will affect a wide variety of outcomes. For example, demographers study census data to determine how increases in elderly populations will affect government capacity to fund social security and other programs. Employment opportunities in demography are not limited to government sectors; nonprofit and for-profit organizations hire demographers to understand how population changes will affect their programs, sales, marketing efforts, and other activities.


In demography, the branch supports research on the scientific study of human populations, including fertility, pregnancy outcomes, mortality and morbidity (especially maternal, infant, child, adolescent, and young adult mortality and morbidity), migration, population distribution, population stratification (including disparities based on race, ethnicity, sex/gender, and age), nuptiality, family demography, population growth and decline, and the causes and consequences of demographic change.


In population health, the branch supports research on how demographic, social, economic, institutional, geographic, and other factors influence human health, productivity, behavior, and development, with an emphasis on research using population-representative data and natural and policy experiments using methods addressing selection and other sources of bias. Research at multiple levels of analysis, involving interdisciplinary perspectives, incorporating social determinants of health, and elucidating mechanisms leading to health disparities are encouraged.


Priority: Research focused on the effects of interactions between biological factors, including genetic factors, and environmental exposures on human health and development across the life course and across generations. Environmental exposures include not only the physical environment, but also exposures caused by social, economic, and policy environments. There is a need to study biological/environmental interactions affecting normal and abnormal development, effects of positive and negative exposures during childhood and adolescence, timing of puberty and reproduction, the ability to become pregnant and achieve a successful pregnancy, and maternal health during and after pregnancy.


Demography (from Ancient Greek δῆμος (dêmos) 'people, society', and -γραφία (-graphía) 'writing, drawing, description')[1] is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.


Demographic analysis examines and measures the dimensions and dynamics of populations; it can cover whole societies or groups defined by criteria such as education, nationality, religion, and ethnicity. Educational institutions[2] usually treat demography as a field of sociology, though there are a number of independent demography departments.[3] These methods have primarily been developed to study human populations, but are extended to a variety of areas where researchers want to know how populations of social actors can change across time through processes of birth, death, and migration. In the context of human biological populations, demographic analysis uses administrative records to develop an independent estimate of the population.[4] Demographic analysis estimates are often considered a reliable standard for judging the accuracy of the census information gathered at any time. In the labor force, demographic analysis is used to estimate sizes and flows of populations of workers; in population ecology the focus is on the birth, death, migration and immigration of individuals in a population of living organisms, alternatively, in social human sciences could involve movement of firms and institutional forms. Demographic analysis is used in a wide variety of contexts. For example, it is often used in business plans, to describe the population connected to the geographic location of the business.[5] Demographic analysis is usually abbreviated as DA.[6] For the 2010 U.S. Census, The U.S. Census Bureau has expanded its DA categories.[6] Also as part of the 2010 U.S. Census, DA now also includes comparative analysis between independent housing estimates, and census address lists at different key time points.[6]


Formal demography limits its object of study to the measurement of population processes, while the broader field of social demography or population studies also analyses the relationships between economic, social, institutional, cultural, and biological processes influencing a population.[8]


Demographic thoughts traced back to antiquity, and were present in many civilisations and cultures, like Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, China and India.[9] Made up of the prefix demo- and the suffix -graphy, the term demography refers to the overall study of population.


In 1855, a Belgian scholar Achille Guillard defined demography as the natural and social history of human species or the mathematical knowledge of populations, of their general changes, and of their physical, civil, intellectual, and moral condition.[16]


Demography is the statistical and mathematical study of the size, composition, and spatial distribution of human populations and how these features change over time. Data are obtained from a census of the population and from registries: records of events like birth, deaths, migrations, marriages, divorces, diseases, and employment. To do this, there needs to be an understanding of how they are calculated and the questions they answer which are included in these four concepts: population change, standardization of population numbers, the demographic bookkeeping equation, and population composition.


For there to be a significant comparison, numbers must be altered for the size of the population that is under study. For example, the fertility rate is calculated as the ratio of the number of births to women of childbearing age to the total number of women in this age range. If these adjustments were not made, we would not know if a nation with a higher rate of births or deaths has a population with more women of childbearing age or more births per eligible woman.


Populations can change through three processes: fertility, mortality, and migration. Fertility involves the number of children that women have and is to be contrasted with fecundity (a woman's childbearing potential).[29] Mortality is the study of the causes, consequences, and measurement of processes affecting death to members of the population. Demographers most commonly study mortality using the life table, a statistical device that provides information about the mortality conditions (most notably the life expectancy) in the population.[30]


A basic definition of population ecology is a study of the distribution and abundance of organisms. As it relates to organizations and demography, organizations go through various liabilities to their continued survival. Hospitals, like all other large and complex organizations are impacted in the environment they work. For example, a study was done on the closure of acute care hospitals in Florida between a particular time. The study examined effect size, age, and niche density of these particular hospitals. A population theory says that organizational outcomes are mostly determined by environmental factors. Among several factors of the theory, there are four that apply to the hospital closure example: size, age, density of niches in which organizations operate, and density of niches in which organizations are established.


The research of the PSC is ever-evolving. The scale of research ranges from macro to micro and reaches across many disciplines including economics, demography, and sociology. PSC scientists seek to understand the dynamics of human populations.


PSC is anchored by a long, distinguished tradition and topics are a major source of intellectual identification across fields within the PSC, as researchers who are not trained in formal demography, but who are studying fertility, marriage, family etc. are attracted to population research. Research areas include: Fertility, Family planning, and Reproductive Health and Mortality.


The Population Studies Center (PSC) at the University of Pennsylvania (Penn) has fostered research and training in population since 1962, with support from the NICHD P30 program from 1978-2003 and the P2C Population Dynamics Research Infrastructure Program from 2018 to present (formerly the R24 funding mechanism from 2003-2018). Our goal is to remain a national and world leader in research on the growth and structure of human populations and on the role of socioeconomic stratification and human and social diversity on the health of populations. The PSC is characterized by strong continuity in the production of high-quality research on demography, population-based studies of health and human development, and behavioral and social science approaches to sexually transmitted diseases and reproductive health. 041b061a72


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